Mechanical and Machine Construction

Mechanical and Machine Construction Research Team

Mechanical and Machine Construction Laboratory is one of the research laboratory facilities at Faculty of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Institut Teknologi Bandung. The laboratory research program focuses on the following topic: (1) Multiscale mechanics for advanced materials, (2) Design and Prototyping, (3) Automotive Engineering, (4) Development of Structural Health Monitoring, and (5) Battery Technology.

Micromechanics of Composite Materials

This research investigates the role of microscale phenomena in composite materials to their performance as main load-bearing structures. Modeling of micromechanics of the composite is introduced here. Advanced testing procedures to evaluate the composite performance in microscale are proposed. The phenomena occurring in the experiment are explained comprehensively by simulating various modeling strategies. Multiscale modeling and analyses are also demonstrated to observe the phenomena. The research result can broaden the insight into the importance of the composite’s microstructure, which will be beneficial for designing novel composite structures with high strength and endurance.


Mauludin, L.M., Budiman, B.A., Santosa, S.P., Zhuang, X. and Rabczuk, T., 2020. Numerical modeling of microcrack behavior in encapsulation-based self-healing concrete under uniaxial tension. Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology, pp.1-7.

Putra, I.S., Budiman, B.A., Sambegoro, P.L., Santosa, S.P., Mahyuddin, A.I., Kishimoto, K. and Inaba, K., 2020. The influence of fiber surface profile and roughness to fiber–matrix interfacial properties. Journal of Composite Materials54(11), pp.1441-1452.

Budiman, B.A., Adziman, F., Sambegoro, P.L., Nurprasetio, I.P., Ilhamsyah, R. and Aziz, M., 2018. The role of interfacial rigidity to crack propagation path in fiber reinforced polymer composite. Fibers and Polymers19(9), pp.1980-1988.

Budiman, B.A., Triawan, F., Adziman, F. and Nurprasetio, I.P., 2017. Modeling of stress transfer behavior in fiber-matrix composite under axial and transverse loadings. Composite interfaces24(7), pp.677-690.

Budiman, B.A., Juangsa, F.B., Aziz, M., Nurprasetio, I.P. and Zaini, I.N., 2017. Experimental verification of interfacial strength effect on the mechanical properties of carbon fiber-epoxy composite. International Journal on Advanced Science, Engineering and Information Technology7(6), pp.2226-2231.

Budiman, B.A., Takahashi, K., Inaba, K. and Kishimoto, K., 2016. Evaluation of interfacial strength between fiber and matrix based on cohesive zone modeling. Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing90, pp.211-217.

Budiman, B.A., Takahashi, K., Inaba, K. and Kishimoto, K., 2015. A new method of evaluating interfacial properties of a fiber/matrix composite. Journal of Composite Materials49(4), pp.465-475.

Adhesive Bonding Technology

The bonding strength between aluminum alloy and woven composite joined by Araldite adhesive is evaluated. A fracture criterion for the joint subjected to mixed-mode loading is then proposed. For this work, specimens consisting of aluminum alloys adhered to woven composites by Araldite® Standard were fabricated and tested under normal and shear loadings using the double-cantilever beam test the shear-lap joint test, respectively. The fracture behavior of the adhesive joint was investigated by monitoring cracks formed at the adherend surfaces. The results indicate that cracks propagate into the woven composite bulk rather than into the aluminum alloy bulk. Furthermore, finite-element simulations of these tests suggest that the cohesive zone model well describes the fracture behavior of adhesive joints. Bonding strengths under opening- and shearing-fracture modes are evaluated by comparing experimentally applied loads with simulated loads. This study reveals the characteristics of the aluminum alloy–woven composite adhesive joint that differ from adhesive joints between similar adherents. Finally, a locus of the fracture criterion for the adhesive joint based on the joint’s bonding strength is presented.


Nurprasetio, I.P., Budiman, B.A. and Aziz, M., 2018. Evaluation of bonding strength and fracture criterion for aluminum alloy–woven composite adhesive joint based on cohesive zone model. International Journal of Adhesion and Adhesives85, pp.193-201.

Design and Prototyping

The mechanical design research group is an expert in developing various designs and prototypes for industrial needs and broad communities. Several prototypes have been manufactured and implemented are (1) plastic shredding machine and fluidized drying bed for plastic waste industries, (2) micro hydropower plant, bucket crusher, cage wheels, and compost applicator for agriculture and forestry industries, and (3) electric vehicle chassis, railway components, and battery technology for future mobilities. Those prototypes were built to meet industrial and community demands.


Halimah, P.N., Budiman, B.A. and Sambegoro, P.L., 2020, April. Mechanical properties of pouch battery constituents. In AIP Conference Proceedings (Vol. 2217, No. 1, p. 030097). AIP Publishing LLC.

Masyhur, A.H., Nurprasetio, I.P., Budiman, B.A., Adhinugraha, A. and Putra, A.E., 2019, November. Prototyping of Bluetooth-Based Wireless Strain Measurement System for Freight Overload Prevention. In 2019 6th International Conference on Electric Vehicular Technology (ICEVT) (pp. 345-348). IEEE.

Masyhur, A.H., Nurprasetio, I.P., Budiman, B.A. and Utomo, T.P.B., 2019, November. Design and Prototyping of Weigh-In-Motion and Overload Detection System for Freight Vehicle. In IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering (Vol. 694, No. 1, p. 012003). IOP Publishing.

Juangsa, F.B., Budiman, B.A., Aziz, M. and Soelaiman, T.A.F., 2017. Design of an airborne vertical axis wind turbine for low electrical power demands. International Journal of Energy and Environmental Engineering8(4), pp.293-301.

Nurprasetio, I.P., Rahardian, S., Budiman, B.A. and Prawisudha, P., 2017. Perancangan Dan Pembuatan Prototype Alat Pengering Cacahan Plastik Daur Ulang. Mesin26(2), pp.66-79.

Nurprasetio, I.P., Budiman, B.A. and Triawan, F., 2017. Failure investigation of plastic shredding machine’s flange coupling based on mechanical analysis. Indonesian Journal of Science and Technology2(2), pp.124-133.

Budiman, B.A., Suharto, D., Djodikusumo, I., Aziz, M. and Juangsa, F.B., 2016. Fail-safe design and analysis for the guide vane of a hydro turbine. Advances in Mechanical Engineering8(7), p.1687814016658178.

Automotive Engineering

This research is carried out to evaluate and optimize a three-wheeled vehicle’s ride performance through an experiment. Here, the suspension system’s role in the vehicle’s ride quality is investigated to determine a suitable suspension system for the ride optimization of such vehicles. The outcome of this research suggests an experimental method and analysis of determining the required suspension properties for a ride-optimized vehicle quantitatively. Furthermore, the significant parameters affecting the instability of a Three-Wheeled Electric Vehicle are revealed. Evaluation is conducted by analytical and simulation methods using multi-body dynamic software. By considering all evaluated parameters in this research, the vehicles achieve optimum stability and maneuverability performance.


Kusuma, C. F., Budiman, B. A., Nurprasetio I. P., Islameka M., Masyhur, A. H., Aziz, M., and Reksowardojo, I. K. (2021). Energy Management System of Electric Bus Equipped with Regenerative Braking and Range Extender. International Journal of Automotive Technology, 22(6), 1651-1664.

Reksowardojo, I.K., Arya, R.R., Budiman, B.A., Islameka, M., Santosa, S.P., Sambegoro, P.L., Aziz, A.R. and Abidin, E.Z., 2020. Energy Management System Design for Good Delivery Electric Trike Equipped with Different Powertrain Configurations. World Electric Vehicle Journal11(4), p.76.

Arifurrahman, F., Budiman, B.A. and Santosa, S.P., 2018, October. Static Analysis of an Electric Three-Wheel Vehicle. In 2018 5th International Conference on Electric Vehicular Technology (ICEVT) (pp. 218-223). IEEE.

Arifurrahman, F., Indrawanto, I., Budiman, B.A., Sambegoro, P.L. and Santosa, S.P., 2018. Frame modal analysis for an electric three-wheel vehicle. In MATEC Web of Conferences (Vol. 197, p. 08001). EDP Sciences.

Structural Health Monitoring

The crack damage is frequently found in the CFRP structure during operating services. In structural health monitoring (SHM) technology, the detection of the crack in the composite material is very critical. Our group introduces a method to detect crack length and orientation that occur in plain-woven CFRP using the electrical resistance change measurement. To measure the resistance of CFRP, a four-wire measurement method is utilized so that the change of the resistance value can be obtained indirectly when the cracks occurred in CFRP. The characteristics of the plain-woven composite are investigated by observing electrical strain and mechanical strain relationships during tensile testing. Some significant results found are the plain-woven composite has non-linear positive piezoresistivity, which must be considered in developing structural health monitoring.


Nurprasetio, I.P., Budiman, B.A., Afwan, A.A., Halimah, P.N., Utami, S.T. and Aziz, M., 2020. Nonlinear Piezoresistive Behavior of Plain-Woven Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composite Subjected to Tensile Loading. Applied Sciences10(4), p.1366.

Battery Technology

This research aims to find a breakthrough in the next generation of battery technology applicable to electric vehicles. The research focuses on mechanical and electrical characterization and modelling of the batteries to contribute to improving battery safety. A robust, reliable, high energy density and long-lasting battery are expected to be an interest of the research output.


Budiman, B. A., Saputro, A., Rahardian, S., Aziz, M., Sambegoro, P., & Nurprasetio, I. P. (2022). Mechanical damages in solid electrolyte battery due to electrode volume changes. Journal of Energy Storage52, 104810.

Budiman, B. A., Rahardian, S., Saputro, A., Hidayat, A., Nurprasetio, I. P., & Sambegoro, P. (2022). Structural integrity of lithium-ion pouch battery subjected to three-point bending. Engineering Failure Analysis138, 106307.

Widyantara, R. D., Naufal, M. A., Sambegoro, P. L., Nurprasetio, I. P., Triawan, F., Djamari, D. W., … & Aziz, M. (2021). Low-Cost Air-Cooling System Optimization on Battery Pack of Electric Vehicle. Energies, 14(23), 7954.